Tree Leaves / Browse Plant
1.Trichantera Gigantea (Madre de Agua)
Trichantera gigantea is the scientific name of Madre de Agua. A small tree that is usually used as fodder. Madre de Agua is one of the best protein sources in preparing feeds for chickens,turkeys, pigs, goats, carabaos, sheep and cows etc.
is a forage tree/shrub with many shoots bearing pinnate bright green leaves. Some plant the legume just to be part of a vast landscape, while others plant it for shade and windbreak.
As feed, farmers initially cited the unpalatability of the feed material due to toughness of the leaves. Indigofera has 27?31% crude protein, which is relatively higher than any of the locally available leguminous forages. Leaves and twigs are harvested every 30 days to maintain their succulence.
Although many people aren’t aware of it, goats actually prefer to consume “browse” (the leaves and shoots on trees or shrubs) rather than grass. This diet preference makes nonpoisonous tree greenery an ideal forage source for your goats, especially mulberry tree leaves, which are high in crude protein, a food ingredient essential to your goat’s health. Whether you have one beloved goat pet or a herd of 30 commercial meat goats, feeding mulberry tree leaves to your goat is a simple, easy feeding option that you can use to reduce your annual feeding costs.
Flemingia macrophylla is a legume that is adapted to acid soils of low fertility, sandy or clayey, and is drought-tolerant. Legumes, such as Flemingia, produce secondary metabolites such as tannins, which can be hydrolyzed or condensed.
Condensed tannins are the most common secondary compound in legumes. They may negatively influence feed intake by the animals by two factors: one is the astringency, which reduces the acceptability of fodder by animals, reducing feed intake or the number of visits to the trough. The other factor is the effect of tannin on the nutrient digestibility by forming complexes with proteins and carbohydrates, reducing the ruminal degradation of these nutrients, or complexation with microbial enzymes, decreasing its activity and consequently the digestibility of the feed. Additionally, tannins can reduce enteric methane production, so they are important for mitigating greenhouse gas emission by ruminants.
Desmodium rensonii (now D. cinerea) has been tagged as the “alfalfa of the tropics” because of its high protein content. It has been used for years at the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (MBRLC), Bansalan, Davao del Sur [Philippines] as fodder for goats, but there had been no literature on its nutrient composition. Thus, the author determined the nutritive/feeding value of D. rensonii in the project “The nutritive and feeding value of rensonii as livestock feed”, so as to maximize the species’ utilization in livestock production. Findings showed that based on proximate, detergent fiber, and mineral content analyses, the nutrient composition of D. rensonii was comparable with that of alfalfa. The in situ digestibility of DM and CP of D. rensonii at different incubation periods were tabulated. Both DM and CP of rensonii had high disappearance within 24 hours of rumen incubation at 72-hour incubation, DM disappearance was 89.13%, while CP was more likely to be completely digested with 97.10% disappearance. The CP content and digestibility of DM and CP of D. rensonii suggested that it can be a good protein supplement for ruminants
6. Calliandra Calothersus
Normally cut for feeding as direct grazing by cattle, sheep and goats will normally result in high rates of plant mortality.
Napier grass is a fodder grass that produces a lot of high-protein forage. It is also known as “elephant grass”, “Sudan grass” or “king grass”.
Napier grass is best suited to high rainfall areas, but it is drought-tolerant and can also grow well in drier areas. It does not grow well in waterlogged areas. It can be grown along with fodder trees along field boundaries or along contour lines or terrace risers to help control erosion. It can be intercropped with crops such as legumes and fodder trees, or as a pure stand.
The advantage of napier grass is that it propagates easily. It has a soft stem that is easy to cut. It has deep roots, so is fairly drought-resistant. The tender, young leaves and stems are very palatable for livestock and grows very fast
common name centro or butterfly pea, is a legume in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, and tribe Phaseolae. It is native to Central and South America and cultivated in other tropical areas as a forage for livestock. Centrosema pubescens is grown as a cover crop because it naturally suppresses weeds and is very tolerant to drought. Centro is unable to tolerate cold temperatures, but has very low soil and rainfall requirements. This plant is not suitable for human consumption but provides benefits through soil fertility and animal health.
Pueraria phaseoloides is a plant species within the pea family and its subfamily Faboideae. It is a promising forage crop and cover crop used in the tropics. It is known as puero in Australia and tropical kudzu in most tropical regions
Calopogonium mucunoides can be grazed and made into hay or silage. Cattle, sheep and goat will especially graze it during the latter part of the dry season. Its good persistence under grazing might be a way to improve overall pasture quality through enhanced soil fertility, subsequent higher pasture growth rate and weed control