Rice Farming

Planting Guide for Rice

1. Planning and Budgeting images-1

PLANNING. Identify the resources and materials that you will need for planting. It is important
that you secure the necessary documents, especially if you will borrow money from the bank.
SOIL TESTING. Have your land tested by the Bureau of Soils Regional Office to know its
fertilization and acidity level. In this way, you will be informed about the right amount of
fertilizer to be used and if your soil still needs lime.

2. Land Preparation

Prepare the land two to three weeks before transplanting to ensure the fast and ideal growth of
the Rice to be planted. This will hinder the early growth of weeds and help in
proper management of fertilizer and farm irrigation.
PLOWING. Plow the land once with a medium depth, preferably 10-15 centimeters.
HARROWING. Harrow the land a week after plowing it and repeat this process after a week has
passed.
LEVELING. Level the land with the use of a plowshare or a hand tractor.
ARRANGING THE EMBANKMENTS. Clean and fix the embankments to close up any holes that
may serve as rats’ nest or waterway that will lead to water spillage.

3. Seed and Seedbed Preparation

CHOOSING THE SEEDBED. Choose an area of the farmland which is far from the shade.

PREPARING THE SEEDBED. Make a 300-400 sqm seedbed for a 15-20 kg of seeds, good for one
hectare of land. A seedbed is considered medium if it is one meter wide; its length depends on
the cut of the paddy. Put organic fertilizer with the quantity of 1 kg per sqm to making the seed
grow healthy and pulling out easier to lessen damage to the roots.

PREPARING THE SEED. Soak the seeds in clean water for 24 hours. Regularly change the water
every 6 hours in order to prevent the seeds from spoiling. Get the seeds out from the water and
place them in a clean container. Cover it and keep it airtight for 24-36 hours. Make sure that you
keep the seeds damp.

DISPERSING THE SEEDLINGS. Grasp a handful (50 grams per 1 sqm) of the seedlings and strew
them to the damp seedbed.

NURSING THE SEEDLINGS. Irrigate the seedbed after 2-3 days with a depth of 2-3 cm. Keep the
seedbed well irrigated until the day when you will pull the seedlings out. On the tenth day,
strew 20-40g of urea per 1 sqm or 8-16 kg per 400 sqm. It is important that the seedbed be
guarded from damage brought upon by rats, snails, birds and lack of irrigation.

4. Transplanting
A seedling that is 18-21 days old can already be transplanted. Sow 1-2 seedlings per hill with a
distance of 20 x 15 cm during dry season and 20 x 20 cm during wet season. Do not trim the
leaves of the rice because the wound may let in bacteria that will cause plant diseases. Sow
seeds to the missing hills within a week.

5. Fertilizer Application
If a soil analysis was not conducted on your land, please refer to the following
recommendations:
BASAL. Strew basal fertilizer on the last harrowing session so that it will be mixed well with the
soil.
TOPDRESS. Spread the fertilizer during the tillering, vegetative and reproductive stages.
For the right kind and amount of fertilizer to be used, please refer to the table below:

Time of Application

FERTILIZATION RATE
Amount of fertilizers to be applied (Bags/Ha.)


Timing of Application          Dry Season            Wet Season                                                                                                               (160-60-90)         (120-60-90)


Basal                               5 bags 14-14-14       5 bags 14-14-14                                                                  (1 day before transplanting)


Mid-tillering
(38-41 days after sowing)    2 bags 16-20-0          2 bags 16-20-0
2 bags 46-0-0            1 bag 46-0-0
2 bags 0-0-60            2 bags 0-0-60


Early Panicle Initiation
(53-56 days after sowing)    2 bags 46-0-0             1 bag 46-0-0
1 bag 21-0-0


Flowering                                  1 bag 21-0-0                1 bag 21-0-0

(80-83 days after sowing)


Total Number of Bags 14 bags 13 bags


*Recommended for better grain filling among rice varieties due to higher yield potential.

6. Irrigation

Keep the soil damp up until a week after transplanting. During the early vegetation stage, it is fit that the water depth is at 2-3 cm. This will help in the growth of roots. Raise the water level to
5-7 cm during the reproductive stage and keep it at that level until the grains are milky. The rice
paddy may be drained 1-2 weeks before harvest.

7. Controlling the weeds

Proper management of the irrigation is the most effective way of controlling weeds.
Exterminate the weeds in the rice paddy on the first 40 days after transplanting. Use bare hands,
rotary weeder or any recommended herbicide in controlling the weeds.

8. Managing the pests

Time your planting with the other farmers in your community. In this way, you will be able to
prevent insects and plant diseases from attacking your farm. It is also advised that rice farmers
practice the principles of the Integrated Pest Management. This includes combinations of
various ways to eliminate or control pests without damaging the possible yield and earnings of
the farmer.

PESTS THAT ATTACK THE LEAVES. Since rice have the ability to replace damaged leaves within
the first 40 days after transplanting, it is expected that pesticides will not be needed anymore.
GREEN LEAF HOPPER (GLH). Exterminate GLH by using recommended pesticides if there is rice
tungro in the neighboring farm. GLH can be a carrier of the rice disease, tungro.
STEM BORER. Use a systemic pesticide on the base of the rice plant when there are a lot of
white heads and dead heart in the plant.
SNAIL. This pest can be exterminated by plucking them out with your bare hands or by using
molluscicide.
RATS. Use rat poison if there are already too many of them in your farm. Keep the rat traps up
to two weeks before harvest time. Keep the embankments clean so that rats will not inhabit
them.

DISEASES. In pest management, avoid excessive usage of nitrogen, a high population of weeds,
asynchronous planting and continuous irrigation. You may use recommended pesticides in
eliminating diseases in your rice fields.
9. Harvesting
Start harvesting the rice when 80-85% of the grains are already ripe. Thresh the harvested ricegrains right away

10. Drying and storing the grains

DRYING. Dry the threshed rice under the sun for 2-3 days or you may also dry them
mechanically for 6-8 days.
STORING THE GRAINS. Store the grains in a dry and cool place that is out of the insects and rats’reach.

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